Tuesday, June 25, 2024

Cost-Efficient MultiBeam Antenna System

Parent Category: 2022 HFE

By John Howard, Steve Jalil, Arianne Duenas

A cost-efficient multibeam antenna system is introduced that requires no external electricity or software input to operate. Depending on the model, up to 32 beams can be provided. Each beam multiplies and repeats the total available spectrum, thus, increasing the available data throughput. Live results are also presented in an urban environment with a population of 3 million.

Historically, increasing data throughput is provided by growing modulation schemes and extending MIMO bitstreams. These methods of increasing speed and bandwidth are very expensive. They are for short distances and they increase the costs due to the need for additional cell sites. Furthermore, sophisticated software is required to implement the above methods.

A much simpler method that can provide superior data throughput without the need for additional electricity or complex software development is presented in this paper. It involves standard passive planar phased arrays, passive beamforming networks and passive beamshaping networks. The result is a multibeam system with a low sidelobe level and high gain.

Description of Multibeam Wireless Systems

The system presented herein consists of a passive planar phased array with passive beamforming and passive beamshaping networks, resulting in a multibeam radiation pattern. Figure 1 depicts the system connections diagram, showing the passive planar phased array, the beamforming networks, the beamshaping networks, and a number of 4x4 MIMO remote radio units. The multibeam wireless system shown is compatible with any available radio units in the market.

2022 05 HFE antennas 01

Figure 1 • Diagram of a 4-beam wireless system using quantity four (4) MIMO RRU and power combiners/dividers.

Figure 2 shows the integration of the various parts of the multibeam wireless system in a single passive phased array structure.

The beamforming and beamshaping networks are designed based on proprietary techniques.  Please refer to US Patent OO817O634 B2, “Polypod Antenna.”  Figure 3 below shows an example 4x4 beamformer.  This 4x4 structure is a Butler Matrix, which is then coupled with a beamshaping network.  In the figure 4 below, we see an example of a beamshaping network.

Theoretical and Actual Results of 4-Beam Wireless System

A simple 4-beam wireless system was designed and constructed. The theoretical results are shown in Figure 5. The actual results are presented in Figure 6. The results are very similar between theory and the actual passive planar phased array system. The side lobe levels are about - 23 dB for both the theoretical and actual system results. The crossings of the various beams can be chosen between - 3 and - 15 dB. In this case, the crossing of the various beams is approximately – 11 dB.


This type of commercial 5G Multibeam Wireless Phased Array Antenna Systems are cost-effective and efficient. A partial list of their advantages is shown below.

  1. Robust, hardware driven design based on decades of proven reliability
  2. No software or user input required
  3. No additional power required
  4. Compatible with any base station/radio and transmitter hardware
    1. Can provide up to 96 dual-polarized beams/ sectors in 360° azimuth
  5. Negates the need to actively adjust beam/sector position
  6. True multiplied capacity
  7. Real frequency repetition
  8. Optimal Side-Lobe Suppression
  9. Highest possible Signal to Noise Ratio
  10. Focused beams extend the range of network
    1. Negates the need for small cell deployments of millimeter wave technology
    2. Negates/lessens the need for new macro-site development


The antenna system presented herein has been utilized in an urban environment with a population of 3 million people. Figure 7 displays the live data, populated from 15 November 2021 to 1 December 2021. The results were an average of 4 times (quadruple) increase in speed and data throughput compared to the previously used equipment.

For a 32-beam wireless antenna system, the maximum that can be produced at present, up to 32 times increase in speed and data throughput can be achieved compared to a standard wireless telecommunications system. As far as it is known to the authors, this is the highest speed increase that has been achieved to date.


In this paper, conclusive evidence was presented to demonstrate that multibeam antenna wireless systems can deliver exceedingly high increases in speed and data throughput. The maximum increase in speed and data throughput that can be provided at present is 32 times over the current standard wireless telecommunications solutions.


[1]J. Howard, J. Logothetis and J. Wilson, “Beamformer: Broadband RF Technology For Integrated Networks”, Antennas and Propagation Society International Symposium, 1996.  AP-S Digest, vol. 3, pp. 1632, 1635, July 21-26 1996

[2]J. Howard and J. Desai, “Multibeam Antenna Serves Broadband Wireless Coms”, Microwaves & RF, Vol. 47 Issue 6, pp. 61, June 2008.

[3]J. Howard and C. Fung, “Clever Dumb Antenna: Passive multi-beam antenna for broadband wireless communication,” 2017 International Workshop on Antenna Technology: Small Antennas, Innovative Structures, and Applications (iWAT), Athens, Greece, 2017, pp. 223225, doi: 10.1109/IWAT.2017.7915363.

[4]J. Howard and C. Paraskevaidis, “Polypod Antenna,” US OO817O634 B2, United States Patent and Trademark Office, 1 May 2012.

[5]Balanis, Constantine A. Antenna Theory Analysis and Design. 3rd ed., John Wiley & Sons, 2012.

[6]Milligan, Thomas A. Modern Antenna Design. John Wiley & Sons, 2005.

About the Authors

Dr. John Howard (jh@etiworld.com) founded Electromagnetic Technologies Industries, Inc. (ETI) in 1996 after a 20-year career at some of the world’s leading technology companies. He has held senior engineering positions at Merrimac Industries, Narda (Loral) Microwave Corporation, RCA Astro Lab - Satellite Systems Division, Marconi Space and Defence Systems - Corporation Radar and Missile Systems Division, and the British Aerospace Corporation. During his extensive career, Dr. Howard has shared his knowledge and experience as an Assistant Professor at Chelsea College, University of London, UK, from 1976 thru 1978, and then as an Adjunct Professor at Polytechnic of New York in Farmingdale, NY, from 1983 thru 1984, and finally as an Adjunct Professor at New Jersey Institute of Technology from 1989 thru 1993.Dr. He has received several awards including the Marconi Space and Defence Systems Award in 1980 for his work in Innovative Electronic Countermeasures Solution and the RCA Award for Authors & Inventors in 1983. Dr. Howard holds 15 patents and has published 85 papers on Antennas, Beamformers, Defense and Telecommunications Systems, Filters, Microwaves and Electromagnetic Theory. While attending University College Cardiff, University of Wales University College London, University of London and Chelsea College, University of London he earned degrees in Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Microwave Engineering, Microwaves and Modern Optics and most notably a Ph.D. in Satellite and Terrestrial Communications.

Steve Jalil, ET Industries, Systems Engineer B.E. Electrical & Computer Engineering, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, N.J. 2010, jalils@etiworld.com. Mr. Jalil is an experienced Business Development Manager with a demonstrated history of working in the RF & Microwave Industry. Extensive work done in the design, development and deployment of Multibeam Phased Array Antennas with beamforming technology.

Arianne Duenas, ET Industries, Sales and Marketing Specialist B.A. Advertising and Public Relations, Glassboro, 2021, arianne@etiworld.com. Ms. Duenas is a recent graduate of Rowan University, with entry-level skills in account planning and marketing campaigns in the RF & Microwave Industry.

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